Harun Yahya


Peace in Societies Where True Justice Prevails



In the previous sections, we mentioned the type of justice referred to in the Qur'an, the at-titude of Muslims towards the People of the Book and the compassionate and just administration of the Prophet Muhammad (saas). Looking at history, we see that the true justice established during the time of the prophets continued to exist under the rule of other leaders who exercised justice. After the period of the Prophet Muhammad (saas), too, just administrators who strictly adhered to the teachings of the Qur'an and followed in the footsteps of the messengers managed to establish societies marked by peace. The true justice described in the Qur'an, righteousness and honesty also prevailed in the time of these administrators, making their reigns an example to follow for their successors.

After embracing Islam, Turkish people, too, made up societies that are documented as having had just, compassionate and honest administrations. As we shall see, this fact is confirmed by many Western historians. Furthermore, this fact was also sincerely expressed by researchers who were members of communities that lived under Turkish rule for centuries. The Great Seljuk and Ottoman empires, the two great Turkish examples of their kind, spring to mind in this context. Numerous peoples who lived under their rule enjoyed the maintenance of social justice and lived in peace.


Khans of the Great Seljuk Empire who Administered Justice



With the conversion of the Turks to Islam, khans (a title given to the supreme rulers of Turkish tribes and Ottoman sultans) and sultans ruled in the light of the Islamic teachings. The spread of Islam witnessed praiseworthy accomplishments, great conquests and many other im-portant contributions during the reign of these leaders, due to the guidance of justice described in the Qur'an. In his book, The Spread of Islam in the World, Sir Thomas Arnold, a British researcher, explains the willingness of Christians to come under Seljuk rule in these terms:


This same sense of security of religious life under Muslim rule led many of the Christians of Asia Minor, also, about the same time, to welcome the advent of the Saljuq Turks as their deliverers… In the reign of Michael VIII (1261-1282), the Turks were often invited to take possession of the smaller towns in the interior of Asia Minor by the inhabitants, that they might escape from the tyranny of the empire; and both rich and poor often emigrated into Turkish dominions.17


Malik Shah, the ruler of the Islamic Seljuk Empire during its brightest age, was very careful to apply the judgments of the Qur'an. He approached the people in the conquered lands with great love and compassion, and was thus remembered by them with respect. The Armenian his-torian Mateos of Urfa describes the Great Seljuk Empire as follows:


The reign of Malik Shah was blessed by Allah. His sovereignty extended to the remotest countries and gave peace to Armenians. His heart was full of compassion for Christians. He treated the people of the lands he passed through like a father. Many towns and provinces came under his control of their own free will; all Roman and Armenian towns recognized his laws.18


All objective historians refer to the justice and compassion of Malik Shah in their works. His compassion also kindled feelings of love towards him in the hearts of the People of the Book. For this reason, unprecedented in history, many cities came under Malik Shah's rule of their own free will. Sir Thomas Arnold also mentions Odo de Diogilo, a monk of St. Denis, who participated in the Second Crusade as the private chaplain of Louis VII and refers in his memoirs to the justice administered by Muslims, regardless of the religious affiliation of the subjects. Based on the graphic account of Odo de Diogilo, Sir Thomas Arnold writes:


The situation of the survivors would have been utterly hopeless, had not the sight of their misery melted the hearts of the Muhammadans to pity. They tended the sick and relieved the poor and starving with open-handed liberality. Some even bought up the French money which the Greeks had got out of the pilgrims by force or cunning, and lavishly distributed it among the needy. So great was the contrast between the kind treatment the pilgrims received from [them] … andthe cruelty of their fellow-Christians, the Greeks, who imposed forced labour upon them, beat them, and robbed them of what little they had left, that many of them voluntarily embraced the faith of their deliverers.19


Odo de Diogilo, narrating the events experienced during the Second Crusade, relates the ef-ficacy of the loving, compassionate and just attitudes of Muslims:


Avoiding their co-religionists who had been so cruel to them, they went in safety among the infidels who had compassion upon them, and, as we heard, more than three thousand joined themselves to the Turks when they retired… … though it is certain that contented with the services they performed, they compelled no one among them to renounce his religion.20


These statements by historians reveal that the morality of the Qur'an commands the estab-lishment of justice in warfare and other difficult times. This superior morality displayed by the Muslim Turks—at a time when the world was ruled by tyrants—is an indication of their commit-ment to the Qur'an and their superior character. For this reason, no matter how prejudicial a nation or a community may be towards Islam, their hearts will soften when they witness this good morality of Muslims, just like in the case of Crusaders.


The Ottoman Empire Brought Justice to the Conquered Lands



In societies in which people complied with the commands of the Qur'an, social life was marked by peace and tranquillity, which is a phenomenon that is also confirmed by the historical facts. One of these just administrations was the Ottoman Empire, which was originally a small state that spread rapidly, superseding the Byzantine Empire and which eventually came over a vast swath of land including southwest Asia, northeast Africa, and southeast Europe. Today, we still come across traces of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans, the Middle East and North Africa. Everywhere in the Ottoman Empire was ruled by Muslim administrators who displayed the noble traits of people who adhered to Islamic tenets. One can understand the influence of the Otto-mans from the quotation below, taken from the ten-volume work, Histoire de la Turquie, (1854) by Lamartine:


Visit Izmir, Istanbul, Syria or Lebanon. Go to monasteries, holy places, and educational in-stitutions there. Look at the places where religious education is provided and ask people "Was there anything wrong with the attitude of the Ottomans to you, or the protection they pro-vided?" All of them will tell you about "the impartial treatment of the Ottomans and the Sul-tan"… Indeed, in the administration of these religious places, the Ottoman sultans acted with a profound sense of objectivity, respect and peace…21


Starting from the time of Osman Ghazi (a title given to a victorious Muslim military leader), the founder of the Ottoman Empire, Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror, and other emperors became role models for all humanity to follow with their elevated manner and the justice they displayed in their administrations. Under their authority, people of different religions and creeds co-existed in peace. Furthermore, there existed some communities which did not resist at all and of their own free will submitted to the rule of Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror. This alone bespeaks the great satisfaction people derived from his fair treatment.

As is the case with all Islamic states, the Ottoman sultans treated the non-Muslims in the conquered lands with the utmost justice.22 That is because according to the Qur'an, the people of the conquered lands were Allah's trusts to the sultans. The protection of these people and keeping them safe from the cruelty of others were the responsibilities of administrators who ruled with justice. That is why, while European kingdoms subjected native peoples to genocide and cruelty, and exploited all the natural resources in the countries they occupied, the Ottoman sultans made it their main goal to bring welfare to the conquered lands. They never resorted to coercion to convert the natives. On the contrary, they provided them all the means to worship in peace.23

Muslim Turks never intervened in the language, religion and many of the social and adminis-trative structures of the people living under their rule. In brief, the cultures of these people were kept intact. That is why people whose religions, languages and cultures were completely different could live together in peace and harmony under one roof. Regarding this subject, his-torian André Miquel states the following:


The Christian communities lived under a well administered state that they did not have during the Byzantine and Latin periods. They were never subjected to systematic persecution. On the contrary, the empire and especially Istanbul had become a refuge for Spanish Jews who were tortured. People were never Islamized by force; the movements of Islamisation took place as a result of social processes.24


Turkish lands, which were then ruled in compliance with Islamic justice, provided great com-fort for people of all religions. Non-Muslims living in Ottoman territories in Anatolia and Europe experienced no interruption in their social and religious lives.25 As a result of the strict adherence of Ottoman sultans to the Qur'an, no distinction was made between people because of their race, language and ethnic origins, and people of different descent enjoyed social justice. In his book, The Ottoman History, historian İsmail Hakkı Uzunçarşılı stresses that non-Muslim people considered the strong compassion of the Turks as a salvation:


The respect of the Turks for the religious feelings of non-Muslim communities was the main cause why these people considered the Ottoman administration as a saviour.26


European historian Richard Peters expresses how Muslim Turks exercised exemplary justice in the countries they conquered:


For ages, Turks ruled many nations but never attempted to assimilate them. They granted them their freedom and allowed them to live by their religious principles and culture.27


All these examples evinced the Muslim Turks' unwillingness to exploit conquered lands. They respected the rights of all peoples under their rule. Both Seljuks and Ottomans took it upon themselves to protect every individual living within their territories. Thus it was that people of different nations and religions lived in peace without coming into conflict with one another. If the Ottoman leaders had not adopted a just attitude towards these people, they would certainly have failed to found such well-established empires and keep them intact for so long. However, we see that the elevated values and traits Islam endowed these administrators with helped them attain a high level of culture and civilisation.


Just Administration During the First Periods of the Ottoman Empire



Right from the initial years of its development, the founders of the Ottoman Empire adopted the principle of administering justice. They administered the various communities and disbeliev-ers under their rule with great fairness and never resorted to coercion to make them convert to Islam. The establishment of peace was always their main priority.

Osman Ghazi, the founder of the Ottoman Empire, established strong friendships with the non-Muslims living around his territory. These good relations ensured mutual trust. For example, be-fore Osman Ghazi took his people to the high plateau in springtime, he entrusted his goods to the care of non-Muslims in Bilecik, and months later returned with gifts such as cheese, butter and carpets for them.28 The bazaar in Ilıca-Eskisehir, a province within the territories held by Osman Ghazi, attracted non-Muslims from the neighbouring regions because of its security.29 Warm social relations with non-Muslims permeated Osman Ghazi's time. One event the historian Joseph von Hammer relates in his book, Ottoman History, exalts Osman Ghazi's just admin-istration for all people, no matter to which religion they belonged:


One day, non-Muslims from Bilecik brought a load of glasses to the bazaar. One Muslim bought glasses but did not pay for them. When the salesman complained, Osman Ghazi called the Muslim who had failed to pay, took the money from him and immediately gave it to the non-Muslim. Following that, Osman Ghazi used his town criers to order his people not to act unjustly towards the non-Muslims of Bilecik. Osman Ghazi's administration proved to be so fair that even non-Muslim women could come and shop in the bazaar in safety. Under the ad-ministration of Osman Ghazi, the non-Muslim community felt safe. When Osman Ghazi was asked the reason for his extreme sensitivity in doing justice to the non-Muslims of Bilecik, he answered: "They are our neighbours. When we first came to this land, they welcomed us. What becomes us now is to respect them."30


This virtuous conduct of Osman Ghazi is simply a manifestation of Allah's command:

Worship Allah and do not associate anything with Him. Be good to your parents and relatives and to orphans and the very poor, and to neighbours who are related to you and neighbours who are not related to you, and to companions and travellers and your slaves. Allah does not love anyone vain or boastful. (Surat an-Nisa', 36)

This behaviour in compliance with the Qur'anic injunctions caused many people to be reconciled to Islam. After the conquests of Yarhisar, Inegol, Bilecik, Yenisehir (towns in Anatolia) and their surroundings, Osman Ghazi treated the native non-Muslims with justice and compassion, and did not confiscate their lands. Indeed, Ottoman rule promoted public welfare and made these lands better places to live in a very short time. Furthermore, these safe lands even attracted other non-Muslim communities, which came and settled in the Ottoman lands.31 If Osman Ghazi had not ensured the establishment of that just, compassionate and secure environment which Islam demands, non-Muslims whose lands were conquered by Muslims might well have adopted a hostile manner. However, being a person of faith, who strictly observed Allah's commands, he administered justice. Osman Ghazi also attended wedding ceremonies of non-Muslims and gave them gifts, which are acts that attest to his love of and respect for non-Muslims.32

In his book, The Ottoman History, Joseph von Hammer relates another example of Osman Ghazi's justice:


On a Friday, a Muslim, who was a subject of the Germiyan Turk ruler Alishir quarrelled with a Christian who was under the command of a Roman commander of Bilecik. Osman judged between them and found the Christian innocent. Then, throughout the country, everyone started to talk about Osman's justice and honesty.33


It is further related that just before his death, Osman Ghazi instructed his son Orhan to protect all his subjects equitably and to please those who obeyed him.34 The reputation of Os-man's justice extended even to remote lands. For this reason, Orhan Ghazi did not have to fight to capture Bursa (a town in Anatolia). The commander of the town surrendered the castle to Orhan Ghazi of his own free will. Then Orhan Ghazi asked Saroz, the commander in Bursa, why he had surrendered the castle. Saroz replied that those who obeyed Orhan Ghazi enjoyed peace, and that was what his people also longed for.35 The answer of the Romans in Bursa to the same question also reflects the very same sincere feelings:


We see that your state is growing stronger each day, surpassing ours; we see that those peasants who came under your father's rule are happy and no longer remember us. This being the case, we also desired to attain such well-being.36


A letter written by the Archbishop of Thessaloniki, Gregory Palamas, who was captured by the Ottomans in 1355, explicitly reveals the compassion displayed by Orhan Ghazi and his officials towards Christians. In his letter, Palamas stated that Christians enjoyed complete freedom in Ottoman lands, that Solomon Pasha, the son of Orhan Ghazi, asked him questions about Christianity and that Sultan Orhan himself had a discussion with him, as well as Muslim theolo-gians and scholars.37

Orhan Ghazi's compassionate and just administration was not limited to Christian communi-ties. Jewish communities also benefited from the justice stemming from the noble spirit of Islam that manifested itself in Orhan Ghazi's administration. Having lost everything they held dear under the rule of other states, Jews in Edirne and other Thrace towns received the Ottoman conquest with pleasure.38

The Ottoman Emperor's favourable attitude to Jews also continued during the time of Murad I. Byzantine historian Chalcondylas described Sultan Murad's just and tolerant administration as follows:


Regardless of their religion, the people who obeyed and served him received generous and kind treatment. He was tough on those who were hostile. None of his enemies succeeded in escaping him. He earned the trust of everyone, be he a friend or an enemy, because he kept his promises, even if they later turned out to be against his interests.39


Gibbon, the British historian, described Sultan Murad's compassion towards Christians by writing that he treated Orthodox people much better than Catholics treated Orthodox peo-ple.40

All these examples reveal why the Ottoman Empire gained great power so rapidly during its early years. The just attitudes of the rulers had very positive effects on people of different religions, and the Ottomans extended their borders to far-off continents. The most important reason why this expansion continued during the reigns of other sultans is this same understand-ing and just attitude. The tolerant and just environment established in the time of Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror is an established fact accepted by all historians.


True Justice was Established at the Time of Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror



The conquests during the time of Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror extended the borders of the empire to three continents, and the conquest of Istanbul marked the beginning of a new age. This conquest was a milestone in European history as well as Ottoman. Sultan Mehmed also practiced the justice and compassion of Islam on the people of the lands he conquered.

Sultan Mehmed's compassion towards the People of the Book is documented by the agreements he made. His tolerant administration stemmed from Islamic tenets and included everyone: Jews, Armenians and Syrian Orthodox communities.41 That is why during his reign, many nations were pleased to be under his rule. A statement by the Grand Duke Lucas Notaras, the Byzantine commander, "I would rather see the Muslim turban in the midst of the city than the Latin mitre"42 confirms that fact.

The conquest of Istanbul by Sultan Mehmed was initially a cause of great fear among non-Muslims. The majority of these feared they would suffer discrimination, oppression and attacks, and so fled from Istanbul or congregated in St. Sophia Church. However, Sultan Mehmed, who treated them with justice and compassion, relieved them of all their fears and allowed them to return to their homes and go on with their daily lives.43 He allowed non-Muslims to live according to their own religions and their own rules, and furthermore, brought in conditions under which people of different creeds could carry out their religious obligations without hindrance.44 In the palace, Muslim and Christian scholars lived side by side and discussed issues in an atmosphere of compassion.

Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror tried to learn about Christianity from a Christian,45 and granted the Patriarch an imperial edict entitling the Christian community to administer their own law in the conduct of their daily lives. Sultan Mehmed gave the Patriarchate enormous freedom, and thus the Patriarchate received autonomy under Turkish rule.46 The historian Hammer published a copy of the imperial edict (modus vivendi) compiled from Western and Eastern sources. Hammer quotes the following in the acquittal sent to the Patriarch by the Sultan:


No one will oppress the patriarch: no one will ever bother him, regardless of his identity. The patriarch and the great priests in his service will be excused from all forms of services for an indefinite period of time.47


Right after the conquest, Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror set about dealing with the judicial rights of minorities, appointed Gennadius as the Greek-Orthodox Patriarch and signed an agreement with them. Another agreement he made with the People of the Book living in Galata (a district of Istanbul), confirmed that the churches in Galata would not be confiscated or turned into mosques, and that the People of the Book would not be forced to convert to Islam.48 Another agreement made in the same period entitled the spiritual leaders known as "metropolitans" to carry out their services as usual.49

Apart from the rights of Christians, Sultan Mehmed also paid attention to the rights of Jews. They were also granted the right to have their own synagogues and rabbis and to carry out their religious services freely. Sultan Mehmed invited Rabbi Moses Kapsali to the palace, the first rabbi of the Ottoman period, complimented him and granted him an imperial edict to judge cases involving Jews.50

These developments that occurred following the conquest of Istanbul by Sultan Mehmed also characterised the reigns of the succeeding Ottoman sultans. The Ottoman army extended its borders as far as Vienna. They conquered the Balkans entirely. Serbia, Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Wallachia and Moldavia passed to the Ottoman Empire and Hungary was taken under its protection. Ottoman influence was also felt in lands bordering on the sea. The Black Sea became a Turkish lake. Many Aegean islands such as the Mora Peninsula, Rhodes, Crete and Chios, the Caucasus, and places such as Baghdad, Tabriz, the Yemen, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Egypt, Palestine, Jerusalem, Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, eastern Anatolia, the Spice Road, Poland and many other regions were included within the territories of the Ottoman Empire. People of different religions lived in these conquered lands in peace. Nobody was oppressed because of his religion, language or race.

A model in which such justice and understanding prevails is what is most desired in our world today. The only way to attain such a society is to live by the values of the Qur'an. As the exam-ples above confirm, the leaders who adopted the Qur'anic injunctions and the societies they led attained great prosperity. Since the values of the Qur'an were adopted by everyone, from all walks of society, justice, compassion, , love, mercy and honesty pervaded the whole of society and brought peace and harmony to social life.

There is no reason why such a society cannot be established again. The only prerequisite for such a society is a sincere intention to live by the values of the Qur'an and to make serious ef-forts to spread these values to the whole of society.

 


Footnotes



17 Prof. Thomas Arnold, The Spread of Islam in the World, A History of Peaceful Preaching, Goodword Books, 2001, p. 96.

18 Osman Turan, Türk Dünya Nizamının Milli, İslami ve İnsani Esasları (National, Islamic and Humane Fundamentals of the Turkish World Order), Vol. 2, p. 138.

19 Prof. Thomas Arnold, The Spread of Islam in the World, A History of Peaceful Preaching, Goodword Books, 2001, pp. 88-89.

20 Prof. Thomas Arnold, The Spread of Islam in the World, A History of Peaceful Preaching, Goodword Books, 2001, p.89.

21 Alphonse de Lamartine, Histoire de la Turquie, Paris : Librairie du Constitutionnel, 1854, p. 154

22 Prof. Dr. Bilal Eryılmaz, Osmanlı Devletinde Gayrimüslim Tebaanın Yönetimi (Administration of the Non-Muslims Subjects in the Ottoman State), Risale Basın-Yayın LTD. March, 1996, p. 26.

23 Prof. Dr. Nejat Göyünç, Osmanlı İmparatorluğu Hakkında Bazı Düşünceler (Some Thoughts on the Ottoman Empire), Ayyıldız Matbaası, Ankara, 1973, p. 29

24 André Miquel, L'Islam et Sa Civilisation VIIe - XXe siècle, Librairie Armand Colin, Paris 1968, p. 244.

25 Prof. Dr. Bilal Eryılmaz, Osmanlı Devletinde Gayrimüslim Tebaanın Yönetimi (Administration of the Non-Muslims Subjects in the Ottoman State), Risale Basın-Yayın LTD. March, 1996, p. 24.

26 İsmail Hakkı Uzunçarşılı, Osmanlı Tarihi (Ottoman History), volume 1, 4. Edition, Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi, Ankara-1982, p. 183

27 Richard Peters, Die Geschichte der Türken, W. Kohlhammer Verlag, Stuttgart, 1961, p. 8

28 M. Altay Köymen, Nesri Tarihi (Nesri History), Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı Yayınları no. 525, Ankara, 1983, p. 45; A. Nihat Atsız, Aşıkpaşaoğlu Tarihi (Asikpasaoglu History), Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı Yayınları no. 604, Ankara, 1985, p. 22

29 Prof. Dr. Bilal Eryılmaz, Osmanlı Devletinde Gayrimüslim Tebaanın Yönetimi (Administration of the Non-Muslims Subjects in the Ottoman State), Risale Basın-Yayın LTD. March, 1996, p. 24.

30 Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall , Histoire de l'empire Ottoman, J. J. Hellert, Paris, 1836, p. 58

31 Nihat Atsız, Aşıkpaşaoğlu Tarihi (Asikpasaoglu History), Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı Yayınları no. 604, Ankara, 1985, p. 27

32 M. Altay Köymen, Nesri Tarihi (Nesri History), Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı Yayınları no. 525, Ankara, 1983, pp. 51-52; A. Nihat Atsız, Aşıkpaşaoğlu Tarihi (Asikpasaoglu History), Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı Yayınları no. 604, Ankara, 1985, pp. 24-25

33 Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall , Histoire de l'empire Ottoman, J. J. Hellert, Paris, 1836, p. 5

34 Prof. Dr. Bilal Eryılmaz, Osmanlı Devletinde Gayrimüslim Tebaanın Yönetimi (Administration of the Non-Muslims Subjects in the Ottoman State), Risale Basın-Yayın LTD. March, 1996, p. 26.

35 M. Altay Köymen, Nesri Tarihi (Nesri History), Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı Yayınları no. 525, Ankara, 1983, p. 68

36 Osman Turan, Türk Dünya Nizamının Milli, İslami ve İnsani Esasları (National, Islamic and Humane Fundamentals of the Turkish World Order), Vol. 2, p. 187.

37 Prof. Dr. Bilal Eryılmaz, Osmanlı Devletinde Gayrimüslim Tebaanın Yönetimi (Administration of the Non-Muslims Subjects in the Ottoman State), Risale Basın-Yayın LTD. March, 1996, p. 26.

38 Prof. Dr. Bilal Eryılmaz, Osmanlı Devletinde Gayrimüslim Tebaanın Yönetimi (Administration of the Non-Muslims Subjects in the Ottoman State), Risale Basın-Yayın LTD. March, 1996, p. 26.

39 Yılmaz Öztuna, Osmanlı Devleti Tarihi-1 (History of the Ottoman State), "Siyasi Tarih", Ankara:T.C. Kültür Bakanlığı Yayınları/2068, 1998, Vol. 1, p. 77; Chalcondylas, Paris tab'i, p. 29

40 Yılmaz Öztuna, Osmanlı Devleti Tarihi-1 (History of the Ottoman State), Vol. 1, p. 77, (Oxford 1916, p. 52)

41 Sadi Bilgiç, Sızıntı Dergisi (Sızıntı Magazine), December 1997, no. 227, p. 512

42 Karl E. Meyer, The New York Times, March 30, 1997.

43 Prof. Dr. Bilal Eryılmaz, Osmanlı Devletinde Gayrimüslim Tebaanın Yönetimi (Administration of the Non-Muslims Subjects in the Ottoman State), Risale Basın-Yayın LTD. March, 1996, p. 29-30.

44 Cumhuriyet Gazetesi (Cumhuriyet Newspaper), Fatih ve Fetih 4 (Conqueror and Conquest 4), Erdoğan Aydın, 31 May 2000, p. 9.

45 Cumhuriyet Gazetesi (Cumhuriyet Newspaper), Fatih ve Fetih 4 (Conqueror and Conquest 4), Erdoğan Aydın, 31 May 2000, p. 9.

46 Osman Turan, Türk Dünya Nizamının Milli, İslami ve İnsani Esasları (National, Islamic and Humane Fundamentals of the Turkish World Order), Vol. 2, p. 190.

47 Prof. Dr. Bilal Eryılmaz, Osmanlı Devletinde Gayrimüslim Tebaanın Yönetimi (Administration of the Non-Muslims Subjects in the Ottoman State), Risale Basın-Yayın LTD. March, 1996, p. 28.

48 Prof. Dr. Bilal Eryılmaz, Osmanlı Devletinde Gayrimüslim Tebaanın Yönetimi (Administration of the Non-Muslims Subjects in the Ottoman State), Risale Basın-Yayın LTD. March, 1996, p. 29.

49 Osmanlı Hukukuna Giriş ve Fatih Devri Kanunnameleri (Introduction to the Ottoman Law and Code of Laws in the Period of Fatih), Fey Vakfı Yayınları, 1990, p.406

50 Prof. Dr. Bilal Eryılmaz, Osmanlı Devletinde Gayrimüslim Tebaanın Yönetimi (Administration of the Non-Muslims Subjects in the Ottoman State), Risale Basın-Yayın LTD. March, 1996, p. 31.


 

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ATV KAHVALTI HABERLERİNDEKİ ASILSIZ İTHAMLARA CEVABIMIZDIR
MİLLİ ÇÖZÜM DERGİSİ BAŞYAZARI AHMET AKGÜL’ÜN İFTİRALARA DAYANARAK YAPTIĞI...
SEVGİYE DAİR HER DAVRANIŞIN SUÇ KAPSAMINA SOKULMA GAYRETİNDEN ENDİŞE...
AV. SN. CELAL ÜLGEN'E AÇIK MEKTUP
CÜBBELİ AHMET HOCAMIZ’DAN MÜSLÜMANLAR HAKKINDA KONUŞURKEN ADİL, DÜRÜST VE...
İSTİKLAL İNTERNET HABER SİTESİ YAZARLARINDAN SAYIN ÖMER AKDAĞ’A...
MADDİ GELİR ELDE ETMEK UĞRUNA TERTEMİZ, NUR GİBİ İNSANLARI ACIMASIZCA YOK...
DOSYAMIZDA ETKİN PİŞMANLIK İFADELERİ DEĞİL, CAN HAVLİYLE KENDİNİ...
SAYIN MİNE KIRIKKANAT HANIMIN SAVUNMA HAKKINI VE DEĞERLİ AVUKATLARI HEDEF...
BASIN KORKU DEĞİL ADALET, DÜRÜSTLÜK VE TARAFSIZLIK ÜZERİNE KURULU YAYIN...
AKİT'TEKİ KARDEŞLERİMİZ YAYINLARINDAKİ HAKARETAMİZ ÜSLUBA KARŞI MUTLAKA...
SN. ADNAN OKTAR DURUŞMALAR BOYUNCA MASKE KULLANMIŞ, GENEL SAĞLIĞIN...
MÜMİN ALLAH’TAN GELEN İŞARETLERİ GÖRÜR VE HAYRA YORAR
KANAL D ANA HABER PROGRAMINI HUKUK VE VİCDAN SINIRLARI İÇİNDE YAYIN...
ARKADAŞIMIZ BÜLENT SEZGİN'DEN SAYIN AYŞENUR ARSLAN HANIMEFENDİ’YE AÇIK...
SAYIN ADNAN OKTAR VE ARKADAŞLARINI GÜYA TEHLİKELİYMİŞ GİBİ GÖSTERME OYUNU
ARKADAŞIMIZ SERDAR SUPHİ TOGAY'IN MAHKEME İFADESİNDEN BASINA YANSIYAN...
SÖZDE ETKİN PİŞMAN OLMAK ZORUNDA BIRAKILAN ARKADAŞIMIZ ALİ ŞEREF GİDER’İN...
TURNİKE İFTİRASINA İTİBAR EDİP DİLE GETİRENLERİN ASIL ÖNCELİĞİ...
AKİT CAMİASINDAKİ KARDEŞLERİMİZ BİZİM İYİ NİYETİMİZİ YAKINDAN BİLİR VE...
GERÇEKLER SAYIN DOĞAN KASADOLU'NUN HAYAL DÜNYASINDA YAŞADIĞINDAN VE...
ALİ İHSAN KARAHASANOĞLU KARDEŞİMİZE HANIMLAR HAKKINDA SAYGILI VE NEZAKETLİ...
MUHAFAZAKAR CAMİADA HAKKIMIZDA MERAK EDİLEN BAZI SORULARA CEVAPLAR
DURUŞMADA YÖNELTİLEN SORULAR İDDİANAMEDE YER ALAN SUÇLAMALARIN ASILSIZ...
ARKADAŞIMIZ SEDAT ALTAN'DAN DEĞERLİ GAZETECİMİZ SAYIN AHMET HAKAN'A AÇIK...
ARKADAŞIMIZ MERVE BÜYÜKBAYRAK'IN MİNE KIRIKKANAT HANIMEFENDİ'YE AÇIK...
ARKADAŞIMIZ KARTAL İŞ'TEN SAYIN DOĞU PERİNÇEK’E AÇIK MEKTUP
AV. SN. KEREM ALTIPARMAK’IN “İNTERNET ERİŞİM ENGELLERİ VE İFADE ÖZGÜRLÜĞÜ”...
"NİHAYET DERGİSİ"NDE, CAMİAMIZ HAKKINDA YAPILMIŞ GERÇEK DIŞI, ÇİRKİN BİR...
HALKI, HALKA EZDİREN SİSTEM SON BULMALI
KONU DEKOLTE DEĞİL, SEVGİMİZE VE DOSTLUĞUMUZA DUYULAN ÖFKE
INDEPENDENT-TÜRKÇE'NİN MÜSLÜMANLARA EVRİM TEORİSİNİ KABUL ETTİRME TAKTİĞİ
BUGÜN BAZI GAZETECİLERİN TUTUKLANMASINI ELEŞTİREN CNN TÜRK GECE GÖRÜŞÜ...
DEKOLTE GİYDİLER DİYE MASUM İNSANLARA YÜZLERCE YIL HAPİS CEZASI İSTEYİP...
SN. ADNAN OKTAR’IN MEHDİLİK İLAN EDEREK DEVLETİ ELE GEÇİRECEĞİ İTHAMI AKLA...
ARKADAŞIMIZ EMRE BUKAĞILI'NIN SN. FAZIL SAYIN AÇIKLAMALARINA CEVABI
SÜLEYMAN ÖZIŞIK KARDEŞİMİZİN DE CEMAATLERİN MİLLETİMİZ İÇİN DEĞERİNİ ÇOK...
ADNAN OKTAR OLMASAYDI...
SAYIN ERGUN YILDIRIM’IN “YENİ MEHDİLER” BAŞLIKLI KÖŞE YAZISINA...
NORMAL VE LEGAL BİR YAŞAMDAN YAPAY SUÇLAR ÜRETİLEREK "HAYALİ BİR SUÇ...
SAYIN ADNAN OKTAR’IN TUTUKLANMASININ ARDINDAN...
CÜBBELİ AHMET HOCAMIZ MÜSLÜMANLARA ATILAN İFTİRALARA İTİBAR ETMEMELİDİR
ODATV GENEL YAYIN YÖNETMENİ SN. BARIŞ PEHLİVAN'A AÇIK MEKTUP
KOMPLOCULAR, KORKUTARAK "SÖZDE" İTİRAFÇI YAPTIKLARI ARKADAŞLARIMIZ...
CUMHURİYET GAZETESİNE AÇIK MEKTUP
GENİŞ HAYAL GÜCÜ İLE KURGULANAN DAVA DOSYASI
MODERNLİK İSLAM’IN GELİŞİP YAYILMASINDA EN ETKİLİ YÖNTEMDİR
SN. ENVER AYSEVER’İN PROGRAMINDA GÜNDEME GELEN İTHAMLARIN CEVAPLARI
SN. ADNAN OKTAR: "ALLAH'IN VERECEĞİ KARARI TALEP EDİYORUM"
MİNE KIRIKKANAT GİBİ AYDIN VE DEMOKRAT BİR HANIMA HUKUKUN TEMEL İLKELERİNE...
Adnan Oktar: "Allah’ın vereceği kararı talep ediyorum."
Adnan Oktar: "Allah’ın vereceği kararı talep ediyorum."
YENİ AKİT GAZETESİ VE ODA TV’DE YER ALAN “UYAP’TAN SANIĞIN ADI SİLİNDİ”...
SAYIN BİRCAN BALİ'YE CEVAP
SAYIN AVUKAT CELAL ÜLGEN'E AÇIK MEKTUP
SAYIN ALİ İHSAN KARAHASANOĞLU'NA CEVAP
SAYIN ADNAN OKTAR VE CAMİAMIZA YÖNELİK MANEVİ LİNÇ
SN. DOĞU PERİNÇEK VE SN. PROF. DR. ALİ DEMİRSOY'UN ÖNEMLİ OLDUĞUNU...
SAYIN PROF. DR. NURAN YILDIZ'A AÇIK MEKTUP
SN. ADNAN OKTAR VE ARKADAŞLARININ İSRAİL VE MUSEVİLERLE OLAN...
CAMİAMIZA YÖNELİK "YURTDIŞI LOBİ FAALİYETLERİ" İSNADI İLE İLGİLİ...
FETÖ'YE KARŞI EN GÜÇLÜ ELEŞTİRİLERİ SN. ADNAN OKTAR YAPMIŞTIR
DELİL VE ŞAHİT OLMADAN SUÇSUZ İNSANLARI CEZALANDIRMAK KUR’AN’A UYGUN...
ARKADAŞLARIMIZ MUAZZEZ VE YILDIZ ARIK’IN DURUŞMADAKİ GERÇEK DIŞI...
İNSANLARA NEREDE VE KİMLERLE YAŞAYACAKLARINA DAİR BASKI VE DAYATMADA...
ARKADAŞIMIZ BERİL KONCAGÜL’ÜN DURUŞMADAKİ GERÇEK DIŞI İDDİALARINA...
KANAL D'NİN UYDURMA HABERİ
MERVE BOZYİĞİT'İN DURUŞMADAKİ AÇIKLAMALARI KUMPASI GÖZLER ÖNÜNE SERDİ !!!
ARKADAŞLARIMIZ ALTUĞ ETİ, BURAK ABACI VE CEYHUN GÖKDOĞAN'IN...
KUMPASÇILARIN ARKADAŞLARIMIZA BASKI VE TEHDİTLE DAYATTIĞI GERÇEK DIŞI...
"NORMAL HAYATIN SUÇMUŞ GİBİ GÖSTERİLMESİ" ANORMALLİĞİ
ARKADAŞIMIZ ÇAĞLA ÇELENLİOĞLU'NUN DURUŞMADAKİ İDDİALARINA CEVABIMIZ
YENİ ŞAFAK VE GÜNEŞ GAZETELERİNDEKİ GERÇEK DIŞI İDDİALARA CEVAP
SAVUNMA HAKKIMIZ NASIL ENGELLENDİ?
ARKADAŞIMIZ ECE KOÇ'UN DURUŞMADAKİ İDDİALARINA CEVABIMIZ
ARKADAŞLARIMIZ MUSTAFA ARULAR VE EMRE TEKER'İN DURUŞMALARINDAKİ...
ARKADAŞIMIZ AYÇA PARS'IN DURUŞMADAKİ İDDİALARINA CEVABIMIZ
KAMU VİCDANI YALANI
DEVLETİMİZİN VERDİĞİ SİLAH RUHSATLARI CAMİAMIZA DUYDUĞU GÜVENİN AÇIK BİR...
ASIL HEDEF İSLAM ALEMİ, TÜRKİYE, SAYIN ERDOĞAN VE AK PARTİ HÜKÜMETİ
GERÇEK MODERNLİK İSLAM DİNİNDEDİR
TV PROGRAMLARINDA SEVGİ DİLİ ESAS ALINMALIDIR
"Allah'tan tahliyemizi istirham ediyorum"
AKİT GRUBUNA AÇIK MEKTUP
"....Allahvar.com sitesi kapatıldı, düşmanım bu siteyi yapmış olsa...
GARDIROP YALANI
SAYIN DOĞU PERİNÇEK'E AÇIK MEKTUP
'CRACKED.COM' SİTESİNDEKİ İDDİALARA CEVAP
1999 KAN KAMPANYASI TAMAMEN MEŞRU VE LEGAL BİR ORGANİZASYONDUR
HAKİM VE SAVCILARIMIZ YALNIZCA KANUN, HUKUK VE VİCDANI ESAS ALMALIDIR
HARUN YAHYA KÜLLİYATININ İMHASI ÇOK VAHİM VE TARİHİ BİR HATA OLUR
DİYANET İŞLERİ BAŞKANLIĞI RAPORUNA CEVAP
İLERİ DERECEDE MODERN GÖRÜNÜM VE DEKOLTE GİYİM TARZININ NEDENLERİ
"Adnan Bey’in çevresindeki her insan hayat dolu, mutlu, cıvıl cıvıl.”
SUÇSUZ BİR GENÇ KIZ DAHA HUKUKSUZ OLARAK TUTUKLANDI
SÖZDE İTİRAFÇI VEYA MÜŞTEKİ OLMAYA ZORLANMIŞ KARDEŞLERİMİZE ACİL KURTULUŞ...
YENİ BİR SAFSATA DAHA
"Müslümanlar Kardeştir..."
"Biz silahlı suç örgütü değiliz"
MEHDİYETİ GÜNDEME GETİRMEK LİNÇ KONUSU OLMAMALI
"Zorla alıkonma, İzole bir hayat yaşama iddialarını asla kabul etiyorum"
"Adnan Bey bizi çok sever, hep onore eder"
MEDYANIN ZORAKİ "BENZERLİK KURMA" TAKTİĞİ
"Ortada silahlı suç örgütü değil sadece birbirini çok seven arkadaş...
AYÇA PARS CANIMIZ GİBİ SEVDİĞİMİZ, MELEK HUYLU, MÜMİNE KARDEŞİMİZDİR
ÇOK DEĞERLİ BİR SİYASİ BÜYÜĞÜMÜZE AÇIK MEKTUP
"ALIKONMA" SAFSATASI
KUMPASÇILARIN KORKUTARAK İFTİRACI DEVŞİRME YÖNTEMLERİ
BERİL KONCAGÜL TEHDİT ALTINDADIR, CAMİAMIZA İFTİRAYA ZORLANMAKTADIR!
TAHLİYE OLAN ARKADAŞLARIMIZ HİÇ KİMSE İÇİN HİÇBİR ZAMAN BİR BASKI UNSURU...
AV. CELAL ÜLGEN ADİL VE DÜRÜST OLMALI
AKİT TV SUNUCUSU CANER KARAER HAKKINDA ÖNEMLİ BİLGİLENDİRME
MASUM İNSANLARIN TAHLİYESİ TAMER KORKMAZ'I DA SEVİNDİRMELİDİR
"Adnan Bey için ailelerimizle arasının iyi olmadığına dair iftiralar...
"Türkiye ve İslam Dünyasını zayıflatmak istiyorlar.."
"Adnan Bey`den ASLA ŞİDDET VE BASKI GÖRMEDİM..."
"Allah rızası için 40 yıldır Türk-İslam Birliği için çabalıyoruz"
"...En ufak bir suça dahi şahit olmadım..."
"Hakkımızda çok fazla SAHTE DELİLLER ÜRETTİLER..."
"Biz FETÖNÜN ANTİSİYİZ...."
“Bu dava sürecinde.... sözde dijital delillerin ibraz edilmemesi gibi pek...
"Zaten biz birbirimizi bu kadar çok sevdiğimiz için buradayız..."
"Biz bir arkadaş grubuyuz..."
"...Biz Vakıf faaliyetlerimiz ile her zaman Devletimizin yanında olduk"
"Biz kimseyle ilgili karalama faaliyeti yapmadık..."
"...Sözde tecavüz için mi buradaki arkadaşlarımla biraraya geleceğim?!"
"...Faaliyetlerimiz herkese hitap ediyor ..."
"Bizim amacımız şatafat içinde yaşamak değil, hiç kimsenin hitap edemediği...
"İnancım gereği ben insanlara yardım ederim"
"Ne yapsa "zorla" diyorlar. Zorla Gülümsüyor, Zorla, Zorla olur mu?"
"Bizim bir arada olma amacımız örgüt kurmak değil. ilmi mücadele...
"Biz birbirimizi Allah için seven.. arkadaşlarız"
"Polisler geldi, hangi eve operasyon yapacağız derlerken, balkona çıkıp...
"Biz örgüt değiliz"
"Devletimizi desteklediğimiz çok hayırlı faaliyetlerimiz var, Bunlar...
"Biz Allah`tan Razıyız Allah da Bizlerden Razı olur inşaAllah"
"İddia edildiği gibi katı bir ortam olsa 40-50 yıl niye kalalım?"
"Neden cömertsin?" diye soruyorlar
"İngiliz Derin Devleti bunu duyunca çıldırdı..."
"Biz Milli değerler etrafında birleşmiş bir sivil toplum kuruluşuyuz"
"Bir imza atıp dışarı çıkmayı ben de bilirim. Ama iftira büyük suçtur."
"Ben varlıklı bir aileden geliyorum, Saat koleksiyonum var"
"Silahlı suç örgütü iddiası tamamen asılsızdır, yalandır, iftiradır."
"Bizim yaptığımız tek şey Allah'ın yaratışını anlatmaktır."
"Almanya'da İslamofobi var, İslam düşmanları var..."
Bir örgüt olsak devlet bizimle faaliyette bulunur mu?
DAVAMIZ METAFİZİKTİR – 2. BÖLÜM
DAVAMIZ METAFİZİKTİR – 1. BÖLÜM
MAHKEME SÜRECİNDE SİLİVRİ CEZAEVİNDE YAŞANAN EZİYET VE ZULÜMLER
"Ben Sayın Adnan Oktar `dan hiçbir zaman Şiddet, Eziyet, Baskı görmedim."
DAVA DOSYASINDAKİ CİNSELLİK KONULU İDDİALAR TÜMÜYLE GEÇERSİZDİR
DURUŞMALARIN İLK HAFTASI
"İNFAK" SUÇ DEĞİL, KURAN'IN FARZ KILDIĞI BİR İBADETTİR
GERÇEK TURNİKE SİSTEMİ GENELEVLERDE
Adnan Oktar davasının ilk duruşması bugün yapıldı.
AVK. UĞUR POYRAZ: "MEDYADA FIRTINA ESTİRİLEREK KAMUOYU ŞARTLANDIRILDI,...
Adnan Oktar'ın itirafçılığa zorlanan arkadaşlarına sosyal medyadan destek...
Adnan Oktar suç örgütü değildir açıklaması.
Adnan Oktar'ın cezaevinden Odatv'ye yazdığı mektubu
Adnan Oktar'dan Cumhurbaşkanı Sayın Recep Tayyip Erdoğan'a mektup
Casuslukla suçlanmışlardı, milli çıktılar.
TBAV çevresinden "Bizler suç örgütü değiliz,kardeşiz" açıklaması
Bu sitelerin ne zararı var!
Adnan Oktar ve arkadaşları 15 Temmuz'da ne yaptılar?
Sibel Yılmaztürk'ün cezaevinden mektubu
İğrenç ve münasebsiz iftiraya ağabey Kenan Oktar'dan açıklama geldi.
Adnan Oktar ve arkadaşlarına Emniyet Müdürlüğü önünde destek ve açıklama...
Adnan Oktar hakkında yapılan sokak röportajında vatandaşların görüşü
Karar gazetesi yazarı Yıldıray Oğur'dan Adnan Oktar operasyonu...
Cumhurbaşkanı Sayın Recep Tayyip Erdoğan'dan Adnan Oktar ile ilgili...
Ahmet Hakan'nın Ceylan Özgül şüphesi.
HarunYahya eserlerinin engellenmesi, yaratılış inancının etkisini kırmayı...
Kedicikler 50bin liraya itirafçı oldu.
Adnan Oktar ve arkadaşlarına yönelik operasyonda silahlar ruhsatlı ve...
FETÖ'cü savcının davayı kapattığı haberi asılsız çıktı.
Adnan Oktar ve arkadaşlarının davasında mali suç yok...
Cemaat ve Vakıfları tedirgin eden haksız operasyon: Adnan Oktar operasyonu...
Tutukluluk süreleri baskı ve zorluk ile işkenceye dönüşüyor.
Adnan Oktar’ın Cezaevi Fotoğrafları Ortaya Çıktı!
"Milyar tane evladım olsa, milyarını ve kendi canımı Adnan Oktar'a feda...
Adnan Oktar davasında baskı ve zorla itirafçılık konusu tartışıldı.
Adnan Oktar ve arkadaşlarının davasında iftiracılık müessesesine dikkat...
Adnan Oktar davasında hukuki açıklama
Adnan Oktar ve Arkadaşlarının Masak Raporlarında Komik rakamlar
Adnan Oktar ve Arkadaşlarının tutukluluk süresi hukuku zedeledi.
Adnan Oktar'ın Museviler ile görüşmesi...
Adnan Oktar ve arkadaşlarına yönelik suçlamalara cevap verilen web sitesi...
Adnan Oktar ve arkadaşlarına karşı İngiliz Derin Devleti hareketi!
Adnan Oktar iddianamesinde yer alan şikayetçi ve mağdurlar baskı altında...
Adnan Oktar iddianamesi hazırlandı.
SAYIN NEDİM ŞENER'E AÇIK MEKTUP
Adnan Oktar ve Nazarbayev gerçeği!
En kolay isnat edilen suç cinsel suçlar Adnan Oktar ve Arkadaşlarına...
Adnan Oktar kaçmamış!
BİR KISIM MEDYA KURULUŞLARINA ÇAĞRI !!!
FİŞLEME SAFSATASI
İSA TATLICAN: BİR HUSUMETLİ PORTRESİ
SİLİVRİ CEZAEVİNDE YAŞANAN İNSAN HAKLARI İHLALLERİ
MÜMİNLERİN YARDIMLAŞMASI VE DAYANIŞMASI ALLAH'IN EMRİDİR
GÜLÜNÇ VE ASILSIZ "KAÇIŞ" YALANI
ABDURRAHMAN DİLİPAK BİLMELİDİR Kİ KURAN’A GÖRE, ZİNA İFTİRASI ATANIN...
YALANLAR BİTMİYOR
SAÇ MODELİ ÜZERİNDEN KARA PROPAGANDA
TAHLİYE EDİLENLERE LİNÇ KAMPANYASI ÇOK YANLIŞ
MEDYA MASALLARI ASPARAGAS ÇIKMAYA DEVAM EDİYOR
Adnan Oktar ve Arkadaşlarının ilk duruşma tarihi belli oldu.
AKİT TV VE YENİ AKİT GAZETESİNE ÖNEMLİ NASİHAT
YAŞAR OKUYAN AĞABEYİMİZE AÇIK MEKTUP
KARA PARA AKLAMA İDDİALARINA CEVAP
Adnan Oktar ve FETÖ bağlantısı olmadığı ortaya çıktı.
TAKVİM GAZETESİNİN ALGI OPERASYONU
Adnan Oktar ve Arkadaşlarına yönelik suçlamaların iftira olduğu anlaşıldı.
"Bizler Suç Örgütü Değiliz..."