Harun Yahya

Irreducible Complexity

Alle Behauptungen von Darwin st├╝tzen sich auf das Szenarium der "stufenweisen Entwicklung". Nicht reduzierbare komplexe Organe, eine Entdeckung der Wissenschaft des 20. Jahrhunderts, widerlegen jedoch dieses Szenarium und die gesamte Evolutionstheorie.

All claims of Darwinism rest on the scenario of "gradual development". The "irreducibly complex" organs unravelled by 20th century science demolish this scenario and the entire theory of evolution along with it.

If you ask an evolutionist: "How did the marvellous organs of living things come into being?", he will outline this scenario: "It is true that the extremely complex systems of living organisms cannot form all of a sudden by chance. These systems have rather developed step by step. First, a single part of the system emerged by chance. Since this part was advantageous for the organism, that organism benefited from natural selection. Then other parts formed by steps, eventually building the highly complex system."

In order for a watch to function, all of its wheels must exist. Even if there is one missing wheel, the watch will be useless. This "irreducibly complex" structure shows that the watch is a work of perfection made by a designer of superior skills.

The point that renders this scenario invalid right from the outset is the characteristic of "irreducible complexity" in the systems of living things. If a system is not functional without all of its components being in place, and if it is useless if even only one of its components is missing, then that system cannot be reduced to a simpler form. It either exists perfectly and functions, or it is useless.

On close consideration, we see that an "irreducibly complex" system cannot possibly form "step by step" through coincidences. For no "intermediate step" would be of any use unless the system were complete and perfect. A useless intermediate step, on the other hand, would be eliminated by natural selection and disappear according to the reasoning of evolution.

When Darwin put forward his theory, he had great doubts about this point. He imagined that the organs of living things could be reduced to simpler forms, yet he was also afraid that new developments would destroy his speculation. This is why he wrote the following lines in his book The Origin of Species:


This complicated structure is an electric motor. But not one in a household appliance or vehicle. It is in a bacterium. Thanks to this motor, bacteria have been able to move those organs known as "flagella" and thus swim in water for millions of years. The motor of bacteria flagellum, discovered in the 1970's, staggered the scientific community, because this "irreducibly complex" organ, made up of some 250 separate molecular components, can never be explained by chance mechanisms as Darwin had proposed.


1. Filament, 2. Hook, 3. Cell Membrane, 4. ORganic Motor

If it could be demonstrated that any complex organ existed, which could not possibly have been formed by numerous, successive, slight modifications, my theory would absolutely break down.19



The human eye works by some 40 different parts functioning together. If one of these is not present, the eye will serve no purpose. Each of these 40 parts has its own individual structure. For instance, the retinal membrane at the back of the eye is made up of 11 different layers. (Right below) One of these layers is the blood vein network, as seen under a microscope. (See side picture.) This layer, which has the most intricate vein network in the body, meets the oxygen needs of the retinal cells that interpret light. Each of the other layers has a distinct function. Evolutionists are unable to account for the development of such a complex organ.

One of the 11 distinct layers of the retinal membrane.
The cross section of the retina

Darwin's theory has today been overthrown just as he feared, because scientific findings prove that most of the systems in living organisms are irreducibly complex. Numerous structures and systems from the human eye to the cell, from the coagulation process in the blood to the protein, are of no use with even one of their components missing. Not surprisingly, no evolutionist can explain through which "steps" these organisms have formed.



In his book Darwin's Black Box: The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution, the American professor of biochemistry, Michael Behe, quotes many examples of irreducible complexity. As Behe makes clear, while irreducibly complex organs refute Darwinism, they prove, on the other hand, that life is "designed" that is, it is created.

While irreducible complexity – in Darwin's words – "absolutely" breaks down the theory of evolution, it, on the other hand, absolutely proves creation. Every irreducibly complex system demonstrates the existence of an intelligence that has built it. The complexity in living things proves the existence and the perfect creation of God, Who created life. As stated in the Qur'an, "He is God – the Creator, the Maker, the Giver of Form. To Him belong the Most Beautiful Names. Everything in the heavens and earth glorifies Him. He is the Almighty, the All-Wise." (Surat al-Hashr: 24)


19) Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species: A Facsimile of the First Edition, Harvard University Press, 1964, S. 189


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