Harun Yahya

During the Time of Abdul Hamid Darwinism and Materialism Spread to Every Corner of the Ottoman Empire: During this period the Ottoman Empire and the Islamic World were Fragmented



The Ottoman westernization movement which started with the Tanzimat Reform era was abused by some circles and used for one-sided propaganda of materialism and Darwinism. Positive demands such as modernization, scientific and artistic development were simply transformed into almost irreligious propaganda in certain fields, which initiated the downfall of the Ottoman Empire.

Under the primitive scientific conditions of an era when the cell was assumed to be a water-filled bubble and pens were not even yet in  common use , Darwin's evolution theory was perceived as a scientific concept. Supporting science and the West was equated as being Darwinist and materialistic, and most of the time Darwinism was deliberately popularized to detract  society from religious ethics. Positivist, Darwinist, materialistic and irreligious philosophies which were first introduced to the Ottomans with the translations done in Abdulmecid period were starting to gradually gain ground. Starting with  Abdülaziz Han's reign, a religious man, this one sided propaganda was halted. Abdülaziz Han realized what kind of a disaster Darwinism was and prevented its spread. He removed bureaucrats and government officials who carried out Darwinist and materialistic propaganda from their posts, and prevented the one-sided propagation of irreligious philosophies.

Abdülaziz Han's  astute attitude caused great discomfort to some circles and after a short while Abdülaziz Han was dethroned and martyrized as a result of a coup attempt. The Darwinist propaganda Abdülaziz Han stopped during his reign reached its peak during the Abdülhamid period, when many Darwinist materialist texts, books and journals were published throughout the empire, particularly in Lebanon, Egypt, Syria and Istanbul, and even more perilous  was that Darwinism was included in the curriculum in many places. Darwinist materialist government officials that were removed from their posts in Abdülaziz Han's period were restored to vital positions such as the Ministry Of Education, the Government Printing Office and the Grand Viziership. Darwinist people were appointed as administrators for educational institutions, notably Istanbul University. At the same time, Darwinist books and journals were   being printed – with the financial support of England at the time – throughout the Arabic world, especially in Egypt, and al-Azhar University virtually became the stronghold for Darwinist propaganda. Thereby, the British Deep State of the time took the first step in initiating their grand plan which is still in effect today. A training program to raise Darwinist Muslims who are removed from the Qur’an and didn't possess the goal of  Islamic Unity was therefore started, which they believe would be able to collapse the Islamic world from inside.

When we carefully examine the Abdülhamid period, we can see that the main reason behind the process which caused Ottoman Empire to collapse and eventually led to the Treaty of Sevres was  Darwinist materialist propaganda. In this period,  irreligious propaganda was carried out by the state itself, and the Ottoman Empire was forced into a material and moral collapse. Now let's examine how this process started and developed.

The Spread of Darwinism and Materialism across the Ottoman Empire
During Abdulhamit Period






Münif Pasha




1- Among the Ottoman intelligentsia, Münif Paşa was the leading person who popularized the evolution theory. Abdülhamid appointed Münif Pasha as the Minister of Education in 1879.

2- The so-called journal of science, Mecmua-yı Fünun, that Münif Pasha published was comprised of articles about evolution. Abdülaziz Han, who didn't allow this journal to conduct Darwinist propaganda, was dethroned and martyred, which was disguised as a suicide after a coup attempt by Mithat Pasha, who was an Anglophile.

3- Mehmet Kamil Pasha the Cypriot, who served as the Minister of Education and Grand Vizier during Abdülhamid's reign, was known to be an English sympathizer. His nickname was “English Kâmil”. 





 English Kamil Pasha




4- In 1880, during Abdülhamid's reign, by the order of Münif Pasha, Egyptian evolutionist doctor Bishara Zalzal's Darwinist book called "Enlightenment of the Mind" was reproduced and taught in the schools as a textbook. Bishara Zalzal dedicated this book to Abdülhamid and English colonial governor Lord Cromer. The book was also financed by English Lord Cromer.  Besides, Al Beyan journal which was published by Bishara Zalzal was regularly promoting Darwinism.

5- England's colonial governor of Egypt Lord Cromer was a Freemason. He supported all evolutionist scholars in Egypt, notably the materialistic Muhabbed Abduh, and he changed the whole intellectual structure of Egypt under the guise of so-called enlightenment and modernization. It was also Lord Cromer who transformed the Al-Azher University into a base of Darwinism. He was the financial supporter of the Darwinist materialist books and journals that were spreading throughout the Arabic world from Egypt. He enabled evolutionist materialist Muhammed Abduh to become the chief mufti of Egypt in 1899. Muhammed Abduh was a Freemason and he is known as an Islamic reformist. For the British deep state, Islamic reform means constructing a conception of Islam which complies with their own Darwinist philosophy, a conception of Islam that is far removed from the real Islam and the Qur'an.  In the Ottoman Empire, during Abdülhamid's reign, England printed and distributed evolutionist books throughout the Arabic world, particularly in Egypt, and Abdülhamid's administration spread these books, journals and text to the entire Islamic world.


Al Beyan journal





Lord Cromer

Muhammed Abduh




6- Dar al-Funun (today's Istanbul University) was founded by Abdülhamid and a special professorship was established for teaching natural sciences. This professorship started to teach evolution. Dar ul-Funun Library, which was also founded by Abdülhamit, became the center of Darwinist materialist movement.





Hodja Tahsin Effendi




Hodja Tahsin Effendi, the rector of Dar ul-Funun, who was appointed by Abdülhamid, is known for explaining the creation of the universe, human beings and other living creatures with the evolution, and his endeavors to spread evolution. He is also known as "Monsieur Tahsin" or "Gavur (infidel) Tahsin" due to his adoption of materialistic philosophy. He is a close friend of the evolutionist Minister of Education Münif Pasha of the Abdülhamit period. Tahsin Effendi brought Jamalalldin Afghani who was an al-Azher graduate and evolutionist to Istanbul to promote evolution. Afghani is one of the important advocates of Hussain Al-Jisr's evolutionist book. Hodja Tahsin trained numerous students, and later he was removed from duty because he was distorting his students' beliefs. However, the materialist students he trained went to many remote villages of the Ottoman Empire as teachers. In this way, Darwinism spread rapidly across the Ottoman Empire.









7- Hamidiye epistle was written by  Hussain Al Jisr during Abdülhamid's reign. This book claimed that "Darwin's theory was not in conflict with the existence of God; that evolutionary theory can be interpreted in accordance with Islam and thus some verses can be interpreted as mutashâbih (metaphorical or allegorical meanings of the expressions of the Qur'an).” Twenty thousand copies of it was published and distributed. Al Jisr's book, which was not in compliance with the Qur'an and science, pioneered in the delusion of linking Islam to Darwinism throughout the Islamic world. Ironically, Al Jisr, who was claiming that  living beings were not created by God, was appointed as the Palace Hodja by the Caliph Abdühamit and he was awarded with the Sultan prize. Al Jisr was also educated in al Azher. This epistle, which advocated Darwinism, and thus denied the existence of God, was translated into Turkish, Urdu and other languages, and distributed across the Ottoman Empire. It gained recognition from the so-called Islamic scholars from Syria, Turkey and Egypt, and caused great damage.

8- At the Natural History Professorship at Dar ul-Funun, evolutionist Ahmet Mithat's essays were also taught as textbooks. Ahmet Mithat is recognized as the first Ottoman representative of evolutionary theory and social Darwinism.  Almost all of these essays were about the theory of evolution. Some of the titles are presented: “Adam and the Orangutan”, “The Feelings of Animals”, “What Would Happen If Humans Lived in Isolation”. Therefore, the Darwinist education system which is still in effect today, was gradually overtaking the Ottoman Empire.





Ahmet Mithat




In his book, "What Would Happen If Humans Lived in Isolation", evolutionist Ahmet Mithat claimed that humans possessed a so-called bestial past, that they attained their current level by evolving in time and that if a baby were to live among animals, he would adopt animal-like characteristics.

Another essay of Ahmet Mithat, "Humans' Emergence In the World" which was also taught in schools, started with the following sentence, "Because humans are some kind of animal, we are naturally curious about how they came into existence on this new world." It was entirely about Darwinist superstitions.

Ahmet Mithat's another essay titled "Vengeance", which was also taught in schools, was claiming that violence was a part of humans' nature, meaning that it was about Social Darwinism:

"Vengeance is some kind of fairness and the violence of justice... Therefore, how can we think that these bad behaviors can harm us while they reside in our very nature?

"All these deviant ideas that contradict the Qur'an caused the new generation to become mentally devastated and spiritually collapse.

9- Ahmet Mithat Efendi, who was the first person to bring forward Darwin's evolution theory in Ottoman period, said that "humans are so-called monkeys." Due to his evolutionist writings, his publications were prohibited by Sultan Abdülaziz Han and he was sent to Rhodes. Ruler of the Rulers Abdülaziz Han issued the following order for Ahmet Mithat's writings: "From now on, no printing house will ever print anything about Mithat Efendi's monkeys."





Ahmet Mithad

Ahmet Cevdet

Ahmet Rasim

Tercüman-ı Hakikat Gazette




10- After Abdülhamid came into power, he called Ahmet Mithat Efendi back to Istanbul and made him found Tercüman-ı Hakikat gazette. The Tercüman-ı Hakikat gazette was published until 1921. The Ottoman Empire's famous Darwinist writers such as Ahmet Cevdet and Ahmet Rasim were regularly publishing evolutionist articles.Also, Abdülhamit appointed Ahmet Mithat as the manager of Matbaayi Amire (Government Printing Office).





Saffet Pasha

Hodja Tahsin








Tabip Hayrullah Effendi (left)




11- Ahmet Mithat, a well-known evolutionist, was a close friend of one of the Ministers of Education of the period, Mehmed Esad Safvet Pasha. Upon Abdülhamit's order, Saffet Pasha appointed evolutionist Hodja Tahsin Effendi as the rector of Istanbul University. He is one of the people who completely overhauled the Ottoman education system and brought it in line with the so-called European standards (in other words he integrated Darwinism into the education system). He is one of the founders of Galatasaray High School. In that period, Galatasaray High School had become one of the centers of Darwinian education. Meanwhile Saffet Pasha was one of the architects of the coup staged against Abdülaziz in 1876. Besides, Saffet Pasha is the grandfather of Sedat Simavi, the founder of Hurriyet gazette.

12- During Abdülhamit's reign, Tabip Hayrullah Effendi's essay “İnsanın Satıhı Arzda Sureti İntişarı” (The Creation and Rise of Man) was one of the most commonly taught evolutionist writings in schools. In the essay it was stated that, in addition to the narrative of human history which starts with Hazrat Adam, there also should be a so-called scientific explanation, that is, the evolution.

13- Abdullah Cevdet was educated in a medical school during Abdülhamit's reign and he was one of the prominent Darwinist-materialists of the period. During his studies at the medical school, he became acquinted with materialistic biology and turned into an atheist. Abdullah Cevdet, who was promoting Darwinism and atheism in his essays and books, was appointed to Vienna embassy by Abdülhamid. Many historians consider Abdullah Cevdet as an opponent of Abdülhamid. However Abdullah Cevdet was one of the informers of Abdülhamid. He settled in Vienne by the money given to him by Abdülhamid. Oddly enough, he was also one of the leading figures of the 1908 coup attempt, which dethroned Abdülhamid.

At the same time Abdullah Cevdet was a Social Darwinist. According to Abdullah Cevdet's fallacies, in order for a society to develop and become civilized it is enough to have a group of people insociety whose skull sizes are greater than the average. According to him, social superiority is also to be determined by the skull size ratio of the societies.

Abdullah Cevdet said, "We should bring men from Europe and America for breeding to reform our race (meaning Turkish people)." (We exonerate our people.)

Abdullah Cevdet was a member of the İngiliz Muhipler Cemiyeti (Friends of the English Society) which advocated the mandate government. This society was founded by Anglophiles during the invasion of Istanbul with the mission of making people accept the British invasion.

During the British invasion of Istanbul, they reported the patriots who were initiating the movement for independence, and had themarrested.





Abdullah Cevdet












Abdullah Cevdet, who believed that Kurds should be seperated from the Ottoman Empire, is accepted as one of the mentors of an autonomous Southeast. The British Deep State gave him the mission of fragmenting the Ottoman Empire and spreading seeds of seperation between Turks and Kurds.





Beshir Fuad




One of the many evolutionist publications of Abdullah Cevdet is the book titled "Science and Philosophy" in which Ahmet Cevdet tried to associate the ideas of Islamic scholars with the materialistic philosophers.

Şerif Mardin said; "An examination into the ideas of Abdullah Cevdet reveals how the Western Darwinist thought influenced our intelligentsia."

14- Beşir Fuad, who was among the first Turkish materialists, published his works during Abdülhamit's reign. Between the years 1883-1887, Beşhir Fuad wrote 14 books and more than 200 essays. He introduced Darwinist, positivist, materialist Western scholars and writers to the Ottoman intellectuals. Beşir Fuad was particularly influenced by the evolutionist ideas of Claude Bernard and Büchner. Beşir Fuad committed suicide at 35 and penned his feelings while dying. He said that the reason behind this act was to acquire and leave behind scientific data, even a little, about the feelings felt during the moment of death. However, this act created a tremendous impression on the Ottoman society and press who were until then not acquainted with the concept of suicide, and unleashed a flood of suicides in Istanbul.

The Darwinism's Imposition into Arabic World by the British Deep State
During Abdülhamit's Reign






Lord Cromer




1- Until the year 1876, in which Abdülhamid came to power, no publication, essay or book on the theory of evolution or Darwin was written in the Arabic world. Starting with Abdülhamid's reign, the Arabic world  was exposed to Darwinist propaganda as well.

2- Darwin's theory was first mentioned in Arabic in three essays published in a monthly journal called al-Mukhtataf.  This journal was founded in Beirut by Yakup Sarruf and Faris Nimr in 1876.

In the first issue of the journal, there were three essays on the origin of men that were written by Rizkullah al-Barberi. These essays promoted Lamarck's non-scientific opinions and praised Darwin.

Three more essays were published in the second issue of the journal. These essays which were on anthropology from an evolutionist viewpoint were authored by evolutionist Doctor Bishara Zalzal and they were about anthropology.

3- After the British Deep State invaded Egypt in 1881, al-Azhar University became the center for Muslim evolutionists. The first Arabic book about evolution was written in 1882.

4- The British High Commissioner Lord Cromer who governed Egypt during Abdülhamit's reign, between the years 1876-1907, was a fervent Darwinist. Being a Darwinist, Cromer firmly believed in the superiority of the Western race. He advocated that Islamic world and Egyptian society were inferior races, that they had a lower intellect and they should be governed by the superior Anglo-Saxon race. According to Cromer's deviant Darwinist beliefs, Eastern societies had to be oppressed and disciplined by the West.

5- In 1879, evolutionist Bishara Zalzal published a 368 page book in Alexandria. This evolutionist book, "Enlightenment of the Mind", was written both in prose and verse and dedicated to Abdülhamit.  In the book, there was a portrait of Lord Cromer, under which he was called "a typical example of an Anglo-Saxon" followed by 2 lines of praise. Both the title of the book and Cromer's portrait revealed Zalzal's great admiration for English.

6- Darwinist Lord Cromer supposedly renovated the al-Azhar University and appointed evolutionist Muhammed Abduh, who is the founder of the so-called Islamic modernism, as the head mufti of Egypt. This renovation and modernization is nothing more than the imposition of Darwinism to crumple Muslims from inside. Along with his mentor Cemaleddin Afghani, Muhammed Abduh is one of the Muslim evolutionists. Darwinism spread to the Arabic world, even to India and Pakistan, from this place.





Muhammed Abduh


Jamaladdin Afghani









Hodjca Tahsin Effendi




7- Evolutionist Jamaladdin Afghani defended the fallacy that God created living beings through evolution. Jamaladdin Afghani came to Istanbul during Abdülhamid's reign, and collaborated with the evolutionist rector of Istanbul University Hodja Tahsin Efendi, who was appointed by Abdülhamit. Evolutionist Afghani was assigned as the member of Encümen-i Daniş, which is considered as the beginning of Ergenekon organization, and of the Great Education Council, which determined the Ottoman's education policies. 





Jamaleddin Afghani





8- Jamaladdin Afghani was an advocate of Social Darwinism. He explained that, the only way for the nations in the Islamic world to improve is by fighting with each other. Many warmongering radical organizations are established upon these ideas, and the spiral of violence in the Islamic world that still persists today is based upon Afgani's Darwinist ideas.

9- So-called Arabic enlightenment movement that developed as the Nahdaa Movement in the Arabic world is also influenced by the evolutionist world view. The founder of the Nahdaa movement, which started in the Egypt under English influence, Rifa al Tahtawi is an evolutionist. Nahdaa movement was  turned into a Darwinist movement which incited radical Arabic nationalism. Afghani and Muhammed Abduh were the pioneers of this movement. 





Rifa el Tahtawi


Lord Cromer








Münif Pasha




10- By the order of Münif Pasha, who was appointed as the Minister of Education by Abdülhamid, Darwinist Egyptian Doctor Bishara Zalzal's book "Enlightenment of the Mind" was reproduced and taught as a textbook in schools. The book widely covered Lamarck's evolutionist explanations, which were debunked later, and Darwinism.









11- Lebanese writer Husain al-Jisr is one of the early defenders of the theory of evolution. He was also educated in Al-Azhar during Lord Cromer period. He defends the fallacy that evolution does not conflict with the Qur'an and the Qur'an explains the evolutionary creation. The printing of the Hamidiye epistle, where he defends this fallacy, was financed by Lord Cromer. Abdülhamit printed 20,000 copies of this book and distributed them. Al Jisr dedicated this book to Lord Cromer and Abdülhamit.

12- During Abdülhamid's reign, so-called scientific evolutionist journals increased in numbers in Egypt, Lebanon and Syria. The three most important of these were the following:

Al-Muktataf (1876-1952)

Al-Hilal (1892-1930)

Al-Mashrik (1898-1930)

These Darwinist journals' devastating effect was not limited to the Arabic world. It widely spread to the Indian peninsula and Ottoman Empire through long lasting intellectual, social, political and economical relations. For example, al-Muktataf became a well- known journal in the Indian peninsula. The Arabic translations of the Darwinist writings published in the Arabic journals released in Lebanon and Egypt were later translated into Urdu and Turkish.

13- Evolutionist Arabs popularized Social Darwinism. As a result, a racist conception of Arab nationalism was adopted by Arabs. In this way, the fragmentation of the Islamic world, and the goal to set Muslims against each other was accomplished.

14- The socialist Ba'athist mentality, which later caused huge amounts of blood to be shed in the Arabic world, also started to take shape during this period.

15- The Imposition of Darwinism into India by England: Indian Muslim Sayyid Ahmad Han was also spreading the theory of evolution among Indian and Pakistani Muslims. Sayyid Ahmad Han, who was influenced by Muhammed Abduh, was also an Anglophile. He was knighted by the English monarchy and was awarded the "Sir" title. Sayyid Han stated the following: "We are bound and committed to the British government. We are not committed to the caliph of Islam. We would rather be committed to the English administrators of our own country than to a caliph who is far away." Allame Ikbal and Muhammed Ali Jinnah, two of the founders of Pakistan, were followers of Ahmad Han. Aligah University founded by Sayyid Ahmad Han, virtually became the center of Darwinism. Many Indian and Pakistani politicians graduated from this school.





Sayyid Ahmad Han




Some of the Evolutionist Books and Journals From the Abdülhamit Period

1- Hodja Tahsin Efendi,  Tarih-i Takwin Yahud Hilqat – (The History of Existence or Creation), first edition 1893









2- Maârif journal, a journal of science and literature that included evolutionist writings, 1892









3- Servet-i Fünun Journal, known for its materialist and Darwinist writings, 1892 









4- İçtihad Mecmuası, an evolutionist philosophical journal published in Istanbul and Cairo, 1904









5- The article explaining Darwin's life in Bahçe journal published in Thessaloniki, 1909









6- Evolutionist journal of economy, Ulum-u İktisâdiye ve İçtimâiye Journal, 1908









Ulum-ı İktisadiyye ve İctimaiyye journal (1908-1911) included many materialist writers' writings such as Sâti al-Husri, Bedii Nuri, Asaf Nef’i, Dr. Edhem, Faik Nüzhet. Darwinist propaganda was the essential principle of the journal.

7- Dutch historian Raynhart Dozi's book titled Tarih-i İslamiyet, which aimed to explain Islam through materialism and used disrespectful implications towards Islam and Our Prophet, translated by Abdullah Cevdet, 1908









8- Al Mukhtataf, one of the the most famous Arabic-language evolutionist journals during Abdülhamid's reign.  Al Muktataf was the first journal to explain Darwin's theory in Arabic. It was printed in Cairo and Beirut, and distributed throughout the Middle East, particularly in Iraq, Iran and Yemen, and even in India.









9- Evolutionist journal ed-Diya, which was first published in Cairo Egypt in 1906









10- Evolutionist journal At Tabib, published in Lebanon



11- Husein Al Jisr's book Hamidiye Epistle, which explained the fallacy that the Qur'an contained evolution. 20,000 copies of this book was printed and distributed by Abdülhamit. 



12- Al Bayan journal, which was released by Doctor Bishara Zalzal, was regularly conducting evolution propaganda.



13- Semseddin Sami's Darwinist book titled "Human Once More", 1886



14- Al Irfan journal, which included evolutionist writings published in Beirut



Adnan Oktar's piece in Jefferson Corner:

http://www.jeffersoncorner.com/during-the-time-of-abdul-hamid-darwinism-and-materialism-spread-to-every-corner-of-the-ottoman-empire-during-this-period-the-ottoman-empire-and-the-islamic-world-were-fragmented/

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