Harun Yahya

The American Presidential System Cannot Represent a Model for Turkey


The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic consisting of 50 states. 

 

Some of these American states were semi-independent before unification. They had their own flags, their own laws and assemblies. Texas and California were independent states.

Several states have talked about leaving the union and declaring independence. It has therefore only been possible to unite federated states with diverse views under a presidential system. It would not have been possible for a second, alternative system to form the  United States.

If we have a brief look at U.S. political history;

Following the discovery on the continent in 1492, a wave of migration began from Europe, particularly from Spain, Portugal, France and England. The internal and southern regions were under the control of the French and the Spanish, and of course, there was a Native American presence. Those regions under English control represented the basis of the USA. Those regions under French control joined this union only later. The regions under Spanish control on the other hand represented the basis of the state of Mexico.

Settlements on the Atlantic coast of North America that began in 1607 continued until the completion of the foundation of 13 colonies in 1733.



The “Albany Congress” met in 1754 under the leadership of Benjamin Franklin. One of the main subjects discussed at this congress was the French threat. Efforts were made to determine a common approach to southern states under French control, such as Mississippi, Kentucky and Louisiana. The matter of the Native Americans and common defense measures were also discussed. Efforts were made to build a stronger union between the states, but these failed.

The 13 colonies on the North Atlantic coast were regions completely affiliated to the British Crown and paid taxes to it. After 1774, a formation known as the  ‘Continental Congress’ was established among these colonies that had their own internal administrations. With this congress, they began to demand greater privileges and freedoms from the British Crown.



In the meantime, the British Crown, in need of more revenues to finance the wars that were going on in Europe and Asia, began imposing heavier taxes on the American colonies. In 1776, the American Declaration of Independence was published by the "Second Continental Congress" and independence from Great Britain was declared. After this, war broke out between Great Britain and the 13 colonies. Meanwhile, in 1781, the ‘Congress of the Confederation’  was established instead of the ‘Continental Congress’. Defeated after six years of war, British forces abandoned the continent and the independence of the 13 colonies was declared with the 1783 Treaty of Paris.



Turmoil persisted in the United States of America even after 1787. New disagreements constantly emerged between the states. The drafting of a new Constitution was completed, and the first “United States Congress” was established in 1789. George Washington was subsequently elected the first president of the “United States of America.”

AMERICA SUFFERED A CIVIL WAR UNDER THE PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEM 

By the 1850s, the U.S. consisted of a union of 31 states. That union however was divided into two under the presidency of Abraham Lincoln. The country suffered a terrible civil war between North and South.



Lincoln, the 16th President, who won the elections with a promise to abolish slavery, took office in 1860. Alarmed by this, the southern states, whose agricultural economies relied on slavery, began seceding from the union. One important detail was that Lincoln, who had failed to take the southern states in the election, secured power over the entire country under the presidential system. The southern states regarded secession from the union as their only option to maintain their slave-labor based economies. First South Carolina, and then Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas declared independence in opposition to the new president’s policies.



The secessionist states united as the "Confederate States of America". Jefferson Davis, who had previously served as Secretary of State for War, was chosen as President of the Confederacy and Richmond was declared as its capital.  With the accession to the Confederacy of Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina and Tennessee, 11 states had seceded from the USA. The war began in 1861 and lasted four years, causing the deaths of 620,000 people. This war between the North and South resulted in the two sides invading one another’s territory time and time again, and the North finally emerged victorious . America thus avoided division and fragmentation at the last moment. Another important consequence of the war was the end of a slave-based agricultural economy, particularly in the South.

THE ENRICHMENT OF THE USA HAS NOTHING TO DO WITH THE PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEM

Some 11 million Africans were brought to America as slaves and made to work in the 300 years between the early 17th and late 19th Centuries. Some 20% of these slaves lost their lives en route. In the 1860s, America had a population of 31 million, and 89% of African-Americans were slaves. Thirteen percent of the total population, some four million people, were slaves. While around 500,000 slaves were laboring in the North, the figure was about 3.5 million in the South. Thirty-five percent of the South’s nine million population were slaves.

Slaves on the sugar plantations were forced to work an average of  4,000 hours a year. That is three times more than manual laborers work today. Slaves in the cotton fields were forced to work 3,000 hours a year. At least two million slaves worked in the cotton fields. America soon came to meet 80% of the world’s cotton needs. The situation was similar in other sectors of agriculture. An almost zero-cost agricultural economy had begun to enrich the South, and an industry-based economy the North. http://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/slavery-and-anti-slavery/resources/facts-about-slave-trade-and-slavery

"The Indians, after all, were little different than wolves, both being beasts of prey, tho they differ in shape, who deserved nothing from the whites but total ruin." These words by George Washington are important in revealing from whom and how the USA obtained its rich lands.

The USA, the size of Europe, has fertile lands and rich underground resources. Looking at present-day America’s underground resource,  we see figures of four million tons of coal and 1.6 million tons of copper, with the third-largest gold reserves in the world, at 230 tons. The U.S. is also the world’s third-largest oil-producer, with a 12.23% share of the global production. The USA, with its steel skyscrapers and steel railroads, stands in 8th position in world iron reserves and in 4th position in terms of steel production. America’s 8.5 billion ton iron reserves are almost 200 times the size of Turkey’s. The large quantities of iron, used in many areas, from aircraft carriers to tanks and jets, in the USA are one of the main reasons for the country’s wealth. When we look at the world’s most powerful and wealthiest countries, we see that they are also rich in iron, oil and underground resources. The fact that these resources were worked by slave labor for so many years allowed the country to enjoy unjust earnings.

In addition, with the exception of the Civil War, the USA was shielded from external threats by virtue of its geography until the 20th Century, and was able to invest in urbanization and industrialization rather than military expenditure.

Furthermore, the millions of Europeans who moved away from repression and backwardness in Europe and migrated to America sought to create a more libertarian, democratic and liberal society in the New World. This philosophical approach was also reflected in American politics, giving rise to a two-party system that avoided extremes and espoused national causes with different approaches. The importance attached by the American people to art, aesthetics and quality also contributed to the country’s growth. The reason why other countries – many with the same wealth - lagged behind is the bigoted mindset of their peoples.

is its natural resources, not its form of government.

CONCLUSION

Looking at the technical details set out above, the “Presidential System” may emerge as a legitimate one in the unification of federal states sharing common ideals and are not based on specific races. America’s strong economy and military also play a major role in maintaining this union. A weak America would obviously fall apart in a moment.

Texas and California, the two most populous states in the U.S., have begun speaking of secession from the union even today, as a result of economic policies they find displeasing. Twenty states that did not want to accept the election of Obama as the President of U.S. organized signature campaigns for seceding from the union.  It is a known fact that some 25% of the population, as much as the entire population of Turkey, are unhappy with the union and want to break away. http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2014-09-20/1-4-americans-want-their-state-secede-us

Looking at the issue from the Turkish perspective, permitting federations based on different ethnicities and different goals will result in the break-up of the country, no matter what the form of government is.

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